8.- PORTAMENTO AND TRILL.
This consists of slipping from one note to another or going between various notes without leaving "white" spots between them.
Normally, it is done with a higher or lower note. This method is not used by the classic Galician pipers. It seems rather to be a recent addition, and due to the influence of other musical cultures. This is indicated by uniting the notes on one line.
"Pass" Notes or Grupeto.
The "pass" Notes or grupetos, are formed by one or various quick notes that soround the main note. They are ascendant when they go from low to high, and descendent in the opposite context. In difference to the other adornments, they always come before the main note, the grupetos can come either before or after; Denominating the preceding to the primaries, and posterior to the second.
Exercise For "Pass" Notes.
Trills are the ornamemts resulting from a rapid and alternating execution of the main note and the superior auxiliary, for all the value of the first note. It should start with a gracenote.
Ways To Represent The Trill
Vibration or Winding
This is one of the most characteristic adornments of the Galician Pipes. Normally this old fashioned adornment is not shown because it's use depends on the individual piper.
How to Achieve It.
As is implied by the word, the vibration or winding, is achieved through vibration (oscillation) of the fingers, prefferably with the right hand, over the "spite" holes. The oscillation of the fingers has to be very quick, but with a minimum length in the to and fro movement of the fingers.
There are few pipers that can use this technique for the pipes to its full range. We consider it somewhat un-artistic, to move the "punteiro" to achieve the "winding" of the notes in the pipes; that without a doubt demonstrates lack a finger agility.
It is better not to vibrate than to do it badly.
All the pipe notes can be vibrated, but primarily the tonic of the "punteiro", the D of both octaves; in this case the vibrations should be done with the little finger of the right hand. There are very few pipers who achieve this but it is certainly one of the great secrets.
A great pipe player especially in the context of vibratingis the "Gaiteiro de Soutelo", whose wonderful "Muiñeira de Chantada" can be heard.